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In response to pressure by Western Allies of World War II Ethiopia officially abolished slavery and serfdom after regaining its independence in 1942.

On 26 August 1942 Haile Selassie issued a proclamation outlawing slavery.

It is estimated that up to 90% of the population of Arab-Swahili Zanzibar was enslaved.

Roughly half the population of Madagascar was enslaved.

In 1807 Britain, which held extensive, although mainly coastal, colonial territories on the African continent (including southern Africa), made the international slave trade illegal, as did the United States in 1808.

In Senegambia, between 13, close to one-third of the population was enslaved.

The population of the Kanem was about a third slave. Between 17 from one- to two-thirds of the entire population of the Fulani jihad states consisted of slaves.

The population of the Sokoto caliphate formed by Hausas in northern Nigeria and Cameroon was half-slave in the 19th century.

Elikia M'bokolo, April 1998, Le Monde diplomatique.During the 1870s, European initiatives against the slave trade caused an economic crisis in northern Sudan, precipitating the rise of Mahdist forces.Mahdi's victory created an Islamic state, one that quickly reinstituted slavery.The increased presence of European rivals along the East coast led Arab traders to concentrate on the overland slave caravan routes across the Sahara from the Sahel to North Africa.The German explorer Gustav Nachtigal reported seeing slave caravans departing from Kukawa in Bornu bound for Tripoli and Egypt in 1870.

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